Wednesday, May 27, 2020
All works of fiction tell a story but what sets them apart is the particular way in which the story is told. Discuss the narrative technique of Hardy in Tess of the DUrbervilles and what this method enables hardy to achieve.The narrative technique of an author in any novel is crucial to the readers understanding of the narrative. The way in which a novel is written influences the way in which the reader interprets the events which occur throughout the novel and allows the author to convey the feeling of time, place, and people in the society in which the author is attempting to impart to his or her readers. In Tess of the DUrbervilles, author Thomas Hardy uses a variety of narrative techniques in order to convey his own impressions of the society in which both he and his character Tess lived. Hardys use of a third person omniscient narrator who is all knowing adds to the vulnerability of Tess by the readers knowledge of what other characters say and do, whilst simultaneously detachin g himself from the tragedy of Tess. The use of extensive description of setting by Hardy allows the reader to interpret the action, reactions, and moods of the characters in relation to the specific atmosphere in which they exist at the time and the influence which such a setting has on the characters feelings and emotions. Hardys use of religious and mythological allusions and metaphysical symbols allow the reader to reflect on the religious and sociocultural environments in which the narrative is set so as to allow the reader to better understand and interpret the actions and emotions of the characters due to the readers knowledge of their environmental influences. An effective narrative technique used by Hardy is the provision of a more direct means of communication between his characters and the reader. This is achieved through the use of dialogue, letter writing, and songs and poetry. Dialogue between characters allows Hardy to present his characters to his readers in a more di rect way. It permits Hardy to allow his readers to interpret the characters in a way which is less influenced by his own narration and by which the readers are able to judge for themselves the characters by how they speak and communicate with others as well as the content of their converse. Letter writing and songs and poetry allow the reader to be directly informed of the actions and their rationale as well as the feelings of a specific character by which the reader is able to interpret these being influenced by the specific character rather than Hardy himself, and also allows the reader an insight into the social and cultural backgrounds of the society as reasoning for the characters behaviour and emotions. The way we read, interpret, and reflect on a novel is greatly influenced by the author and his or her use of narrative techniques in order to appropriately convey the characters and their society. An omniscient narrator is one who knows all and sees all. It allows the reader an d indirect insight into the actions and emotions of specific characters. The omniscience of the narrator allows the reader to not be influenced by the character in the interpretations of the characters behaviour and feelings and also encourages the reader to sympathise with Tess in her tragic and unfortunate predicament. Using such a narrative technique, Hardy allows himself to be somewhat detached from his characters, often appearing as though he himself does not sympathise with the tragedy that is Tess. The effect of the novel not being narrated by Tess is that we as the reader are given a perception of the lives of other characters which Tess herself is unaware of. It allows us to interpret for ourselves the predicament which characters other than Tess are placed in through our own eyes with the influence of Hardy and not through Tess. However, this style of narration prevents the reader from having a direct line into the thoughts and feelings of Tess and other characters, and do es not allow for the character to directly communicate with their readers in a way which would inform the readers of the workings of the characters mind, what they do, and why they do it. However Hardy manages to overcome this difficulty through the use of other narrative techniques such as dialogue and letter writing.Setting in this case refers to the specific surrounding environment and its atmosphere in which a character exists at a specific point in time. The particular setting in which a character exists reflects the characters moods, actions, reactions, and their rationale for these, whilst the setting also influences how a character behaves. Hardys comprehensive description of these settings also conveys to the reader the insignificance of individual characters in relation to the social atmosphere in which they live as a whole. Upon the commencement of chapter two, Hardy describes the county of Marlott and the surrounding Vale of Blackmoor in terms of its rural beauty and cul tural atmosphere whereby a May Day dance is being held. This description of setting reflects the peaceful atmosphere of the county at that time, much like that of Tess and her family, creating suspense for the events to come. Prior to Alecs violation of Tess, Hardy describes the setting of Chaseborough as a decayed market town (Chapter 10) where Alec, Tess, and their companions have chosen to spend their evening drinking. An atmosphere of chaos and disorder has thus been set with Tesss intoxicated and unruly companions turning into satyrs clasping nymphs (Chapter 10). This creation of a embroiled and uncomfortable environment for Tess alerts the reader to advancing events. Hardy makes note of the fog in the woods which is regarded as a metaphorical representation of entrapment. It is during this tumult that Alec takes advantage of the sleeping Tess. In the second phase of the novel, Tess is seen making her way back to Marlott at which point she is overtaken by Alec. Tess refuses con verse with him and leaves him to go down the crooked lane (chapter 12). It is here where we realise that Hardys created topography of Wessex represents the moral condition of the characters. Two distinct setting placed in stark contrast to each other are Tesss journey to The Slopes where Alec lives and Tesss journey to Talbothays dairy. Upon departing for The Slopes, Tess is reluctant and indisposed to her impending situation. She does not enjoy the journey in the least, feeling that her excursion will result in unwanted consequences. However travelling to Talbothays Tesss ride is swift and pleasant. Tess feels a sense of purpose in beginning a fresh new chapter of her life, and considers the journey more of a pilgrimage (chapter 16). Upon arriving at the dairy, Tess observes that this a place of good spirits where she appeared to feel that she really had laid a new foundation for her future (chapter 16). Hardy juxtaposes the residences of both Alec and Angel, contrasting Alecs esta te on The Slopes and Angels elevated dwelling. This contrast in setting reflects Tesss respective relationships between herself and both Alec and Angel. In the midst of the blossoming relationship between Tess and Angel at the dairy, Hardy describes the setting as oozing fatness and warm ferments the hiss of fertilisation The ready bosoms existing there were impregnated by their surroundings. (chapter 23). This description of setting reflects the relationship between Tess and Angel and the atmosphere in which their relationship matures. However this was not to last. Following the demise of Tess and Angels marriage, Tess arrives at Flincomb Ash. Such a name conveys the impression of a stark and desolate setting which reflects Tesss on misery and suffering. The land in harsh and barren, possibly representing the love of lack thereof between Tess and Angel. The work is onerous and toilsome, contrasting considerably with Tesss joyful labour at Talbothays. Tesss depression reaches its cl imax here in the barren wasteland and the joyless monotony of things (chapter 46). it is amidst this desolate and destitute environment where Alec surfaces again to declare his love for Tess. Tess refuses his pleas, still hoping for the return of her beloved Angel. When Angel finally does return, it is amidst the luxurious seaside resort at Sandbourne whereby Tess is described as being expensively dressed and living in affluence. This setting conveys the impression of both an inappropriate environment for Tess, representing her union with Alec, but also a prosperous environment representing her reunion with Angel. Hardys effective use of dynamic setting is used in order to allow Hardy to convey the moods and feelings of his characters which are reflected by the setting in which the specific characters exist at that time.Hardys characters are greatly influenced by the religious and social environments in which they live. Religious and mythological allusions enable Hardy to convey the se aspects of his society to his readers. In the opening of the novel, the first character the readers are introduced to is Parson Tringham. No physical description is given and his dialogue is limited, creating an alluding and mysterious figure. The parson represents the religiosity of Hardys society and communicates to the readers that this is a religious society, whilst also setting the scene for Tesss introduction to the readers and for the events to come. At the commencement of the second phase of the novel maiden no more, Tess is seen burdened with a heavy basket and a large bundle. This can be regarded as the metaphysical symbol of oppression and hardship. Some time later as Tess and Angel depart from the dairy after their wedding ceremony, a cock is heard crowing. Such is an omen of bad luck, and according to biblical references, the cock crowing three times as it had done intensifies the omen even more. This religious allusion represents the religious implications and conse quences for Tesss decision not to inform Angel of her past, whilst also creating suspense for the reader as to the events to come. An effective narrative technique used by Hardy is dialogue between characters. How a character speaks and what they say allow a greater insight into the nature of their individuality. It permits the reader to judge the characters on the basis of their own communication with other characters rather than on Hardys own interpretation of their converse. Dialogue also informs the reader of a specific characters thoughts and feelings as well as their intentions and rationale for previous actions. Upon the commencement of the novel, the reader is introduced to John Durbeyfield. His dialogue with the unknown parson indicates to the reader that this is an uneducated man who is a member of the lower classes. His dialect may give an indication of his county of origin but also conveys to the readers that he is possibly intoxicated, which we later find out he is, and also slightly pompous without reason. Thus Hardys use of dialogue here sets the scene for Tesss introduction to the reader. Also used by Hardy in order to create a more intimate relationship between the characters and his readers is the use of letter writing and songs. Having set their wedding date for New Years Eve, Tess and Angel relish their time together, however upon trying on her wedding dress, Tess cannot help but remember one of her mothers songs:That would never become a wifeThat had once done amiss (chapter 32)This song allows Tess to return to her childhood in her adulthood, and also allows her to convey a typical value of the society in which she lived, a women who had committed an indiscretion in her early years shall never be married. This song also imparts to the reader Tesss fears and doubts, and the extent to which her guilty conscience is imploring her to inform Angel of her past. During the climax of Tesss depression whereby she is in a state of utter stagnation (chapter 41), Tess receives a letter from her former dairymaid friend Marian, asking Tess to join her at Flincomb Ash. Once having arrived at Flincomb Ash, and Tess having subjected Alec to an insulting slap (chapter 48), Tess resolves to write to Angel, imploring him to save me from what threatens me! (chapter 48). Having returned home to her ill mother, only to be informed of her fathers death, Tess now resolves to write to Angel yet again, this time in a bitter letter abusing Angel for his mistreatment of her. Having received no reply from Angel, Marian and Izz write to Angel beseeching him to return to Tess. The use of letter writing enables Hardy to create a more intimate relationship between his characters and the readers, allowing the readers to understand the characters behaviour and their rationale.Hardys use of an omniscient narrator, descriptive setting, allusion and metaphysical symbols, and letter writing and songs in Tess of the DUrbervilles enables Hardy to influence the way his readers understand an interpret the events of the novel. These narrative techniques are highly effective in establishing a relationship between the characters and the reader and also in conveying to the readers the various aspects of Hardys society. An understanding of these religious, social, and cultural aspects allows the reader to rationalise the actions and emotions of the characters in relation to the society in which these characters live. It is crucial for the readers to comprehend the background and aspects of Hardys society in order that they be able to realistically explicate the plot of the novel in relation to the environment in which the characters exist.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Basketball today is one of the leading sports when is it comes to entertainment. This sport is known to have an incredibly high amount of supporters. There is something about the sport that thrills and excites its viewers. This sport is very entertaining because it of its fast scoring and its high pace of things. However, I am sure we have all witnessed a game of stalling were teams refuse to pass the ball in order to prevent the opposing team from scoring. In the United States today Ã¢â¬Å"only eight states allow unlimited use of 30-or 35-second shot clockÃ¢â¬ in high school basketball games. Shot clocks are designed to increase the pace of the placers and prevent any type of stalling. It is clear that many basketball teams take advantage of not having a shot clock. This is an issue because teams appear to purposely take up time to prevent opposing teams from scoring. Not only does it take away from the actual purpose and meaning of the game but it hurts the players when it com es to transitioning to the next level of basketball. The use of shot clocks at high school basketball games is a change that must occur. Every school in the united states should be encouraged to use shot clocks at high school games. The only way to prevent teams from taking advantage of the regulation time would be to encourage all lower level basketball games to require the use of shot clocks at each game. The use of shot clocks would encourage all teams to use their actual abilities and talents to winShow MoreRelatedSports : Sports And Basketball Essay1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesperson you are with character, how you hold yourself, communicate with people, etc. For me it has been a majority of these examples, but the what stands out most to be which has build my character would have to be Football and Basketball. 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Like any other sport, there are many levels that basketball is played at from playgrounds to theRead MoreThe Sport Of The Basketball Player Essay2617 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageslaws of this world destined me to invest the majority of my young life into one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s many sports, most likely basketball or football. Although one would be stereotyping, one would be right. For the first 17 years of my being, I lived and breathed the sport of basketball; I knew the rules of the game, I knew the rules of the court, and I knew what it takes to be a Ã¢â¬Å"respectedÃ¢â¬ basketball player. Now that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve unofficially hung up my jersey and stepped away from the game (for the now atRead MoreBasketball: The Most Difficult Sport844 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBasketball is the Most Difficult Sport Introduction For anyone who watched the mens tennis final at the Australian Open (January 29, 2012), there is no doubt that Novak Djokovic and Rafael Nadal are extraordinary athletes with stamina and skills that are amazing. The match went 5 hours and 53 seconds and both men were drained physically and emotionally at the end when Djokovic emerged victorious. But is tennis the most difficult sport? The answer is probably not. Some would say boxing or football
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Mereana is identified as a victim of discrimination and oppression as a result of her family being deeply religious and she is a committed Christian. As being from a Christian family her culture is strictly against homosexuality. Mereana is concerned because her family do not have the wish to talk about her woman partner even though she loves her more than anything else in the world. Reasoning this is she has not formally come out to the family. From my perspective the idea of being marginalised has already been set by the family. Mereana is basically trying to articulate she only wants acceptance, and she wants her family to appreciate her and her woman partner with open loving arms, and especially to approve of who they are as a person regardless of their sexual orientation. It seen like Mereana wants homosexuality to be seen as just another alternative lifestyle. But her culture, the Bible does not support homosexuality, nor does it support homosexual marriage. Homosexual marriage is perceived as condemned. Marriage is conceived as a legal union only between a man and a woman. This legislation portrays as a declaration about how the heterosexual family is appraised and how all other family forms are not. MereanaÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle was estranged from the whanau because of this sexual orientation. This caused the whanau to dissociation with the uncle. It said to be, he had sinned and having any association with the uncle will be against their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and beliefs. An articleShow MoreRelatedGender Is A Complex And Controversial Phenomenon1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStates, transgender people face discrimination, violence, high rates of poverty rates, high rates of depression etc. By definition, they are an oppressed group. This paper serves to explain how transgender people are and continue to be oppressed due to social group Ã¢â¬Å"privilegeÃ¢â¬ and unequal power relations. 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The mistreatment of particular groups infringe on the idea that all individuals are free and equal. Liberation ideology strives to eliminate external and internal oppression of particular groups in both a formal and informal method in our legal system and society. This ideology believes in the freedom and equality of the individual. SimilarRead MoreThe Truth And Reconciliation Commission1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAboriginal persons in Canada have been facing oppression ever since colonization began. Even when Canada gained independence from the British Empire, the oppression continued and still goes on today. One major contributing factor to the oppression of Aboriginal people in Canada is the actions taken by the Government. The Government of Canada has in fact mistreated and found to be partaking in wrongdoing when dealing with the Aboriginal populatio n in this country. With this ugly truth being revealed
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Ethical Concerns in Business. Answer: Introduction Business ethics have been becoming an increasingly important concern in business. It includes set off moral principles that guides conduct within the scope of its business(Shaw, 2015). Ethics includes making a distinction between right and the wrong for undertaking a correct course of action. Ethics hence includes a branch of philosophy that answers moral questions concerning good, evil, wrong and the right. Thus, incorporating in activities or decisions for addressing of right or wrong is the course of business ethics. Business ethics can stem from individual stakeholders action to organisational systems and can lead to legal systems within corporations. Concerns regarding business ethics have risen considerably in the 1980s in order that commitment of businesses to non-economic values can be accelerated to includes ethical codes and social responsibilities(Labowitz, 2014). The scope of the current discussion of the essay concerns the major ethical issues for businesses. Research With globalization there has been an accelerated activities and cross-border activities of businesses(Banerjee, 2008). Such business activities though increasing revenues and profitability of businesses have put immense pressure on resources that are used to conduct business. Such activities have even impended certain impacts on the community and society surrounding such businesses as well. Thus, the research here has been conducted by analyzing several articles and journals of business ethics such that issues can be diagnosed deeply. Certain integral articles that have been used for analysis are; K. Bakker (2007), The commons versus the commodity: Alter?globalization, anti?privatization and the human right to water in the global south. It is covered in the Antipode, pages 430 to 455 discusses various concerns of common people as wthose against commodities(Bakker, The commons versus the commodity: Alter?globalization, anti?privatization and the human right to water in the global sout h, 2007). This journal is critical as it addresses a criticla ethical business questions regarding whether commodities hold more value over human life. In the second journal by D. Groenfeldt (2010), The next nexus: Environmental ethics, water management and climate change. In Water Alternatives, page 575 analyses critical ethical concerns reagrding impact of conduct in business on water, climate and other enviromental aspects (Groenfeldt, 2010). P. D. Yeow (2014), Bags for life: The embedding of ethical consumerism. In the Journal of Business Ethics, pages 87 to 99 understands the odds of consumerism in the conduct of business and its impact on consumers (Yeow, 2014). M. Alzola (2008), When urgency matters. On non-discretionary corporate social responsibility. In the Human Systems Management, pages 273 to 282 includes several discussion concerning corporate social responsibilities application in businesses(Alzola, 2008). Thus, the scope of research and discussion concerns four major areas of discussions pertaining to following research areas as; Ethical conerns of business on general public Ethical conerns of business on environment Ethical conerns of business regarding corporate social responsibility Ethical conerns of business in regards to its impact on consumers Discussion Application of business ethics includes fairness of dealings in businesses with objective of creating a win-win situation for the company and employee, consumer or society at general. Ethics needs to be applied on every part of a business for the purpose of making profits(Voegtlin, 2014). The key to incorporating ethics in business lies in inclusion of ethics into individuals making it a part of organisational culture. It has been seen that ethics can have significant positive impacts and benefits in a business conduct. Multidimensional impacts of ethics are in attracting investors, consumers, employees and society at large towards the corporation. As ethics implications and concerns can be of varied nature and innumerable in number, four integral areas are discussed in the essay. Firstly, corporations in order to earn extra ordinary revenues have often ignored public and society at large. There has been several cases where high levels of toxicity have been found in consumable items, children have been sold toys made from recycled plastics, disrupted labor rules leading to suicides and so on(Delaney, 2013). Such implications of businesses are on the rise hence, corporations needs to figure out a way such that such issues can be solved by way of ethical commodities. Toys made from recycled plastics around the world in China at cheap rates have known to have caused harm to numerous children globally. While developing and manufacturing commodities on a large scale businesses needs to be aware that consumers might not be able to forgive the firm for any kind of misconduct found(Barrientos, 2007). Second ethical concern in business is regarding impact of the same on the environment. It has been often noted that corporations does not care about the environment surrounding them leading to dumping of waste in the surrounding, which leads to pollution. Dumping into nearby rivers, water bodies clogging drains and damaging water life, discharging waste into the soil hampering quality of soil, factories emitting harmful gasses into the environment causing air pollution are some cases of business impact on the environment. Such impacts lead to climate change hampering life of humans, fish, plants and other animals as well(Stuteville, 2009). Deforestation or clearing of land for industrial purposes have led to diminishing species across globally. Beijing, China is said to have highest levels of air pollution from industrial emissions. Its air quality is equal to breathing in 100 of cigarettes, such have not only harmed human lungs but reduced overall life expectancy raising healthcare costs. Thirdly, Corporate Social Responsibility is a code of ethics for business that evaluates every business actions on the society. Corporations in order to undertake ethical conduct and balance their wrong doing in the society balance off by undertaking CSR activities(Bakker, The ambiguity of community: Debating alternatives to private sector provision of urban water supply. , 2008). Such activities are aimed at efforts for society and environment that are beyond the scope of a corporation. Planting trees, cleaning water of rivers, providing free elementary education to school children and so on are some of the CSR activities that corporations undertake. Such activities are not aimed at short term benefit for the corporation but provide long term financial benefits by promotion of social change and environmental impact. Lastly, consumers comprises of the most integral stakeholder for any corporation hence, ethical impact on them needs to be analyzed. Unethical marketing behaviors and consumerism have often impended lowering of costs to produce a product allocating resources to marketing, advertisement and promotional activities. Such activities are integral for any business but needs balancing as they might impend long term harm on the consumer. In order to gain more target consumers and increase market share, it has been noted that corporations involves themselves in a varied type of consumerism activities. Incorporating in ethical code of conduct will allow balancing of such act for greater good for the corporation such that it can develop long term association with its consumers. This will in turn help create sustainability for the business and benefit it over long term. Ethical codes of conduct needs to be encapsulated within organisational culture and entrusted upon by stakeholders such that ev ery aspect of the business covers the same. This can have positive impact on the general business and help create a brand name for the future of the business. Conclusion Analyzing ethical issues in businesses and integrating corporate social responsibility to address the same has a sustainability impact on businesses. Ethics can help a business develop long term sustenance and increasing profitability for its future endeavors. Rising awareness amongst globalized consumers and society at large have led to further importance of ethics in day-to-day conduct in businesses. It can be derived that it is integral to incorporate good ethical behavior for greater good of the organisation. Best possible tactics in managing ethics across the organisation is by avoidance of immoral behavior. Accommodating in moral management requires deciding on what is right and what is wrong within framework of the organisational culture. Corporations faces tremendous amounts of vulnerabilities in managing such moral conduct by establishing the same across its board of management or key stakeholders. Moral behavior also incorporates being sensitive to the issues of stakeholder s within the organisation. Thus, an organisation has to carefully plan and conduct its ethical management overcoming contemporary issues in its management. References Alzola, M. 2008. When urgency matters. On non-discretionary corporate social responsibility. Human Systems Management, 273-282. Bakker, K. 2007. The commons versus the commodity: Alter?globalization, anti?privatization and the human right to water in the global south. Antipode, 430-455. Bakker, K. 2008. The ambiguity of community: Debating alternatives to private sector provision of urban water supply. . Water alternatives, 236. Banerjee, S. B. 2008. Corporate social responsibility: The good, the bad and the ugly. Critical sociology, 51-79. Barrientos, S. . 2007. Do workers benefit from ethical trade? Assessing codes of labour practice in global production systems. . Third world quarterly, 713-729. Delaney, A. M. 2013. Regulatory challenges in the Australian garment industry: Human rights in a post-Ruggie environment. Labour Industry: a journal of the social and economic relations of work, 69-88. Groenfeldt, D. 2010. The next nexus: Environmental ethics, water management and climate change. Water Alternatives, 575. Labowitz, S. .-P. 2014. Business as Usual is Not an Option. New York University Center for Business and Human Rights. Shaw, W. H. 2015. Moral issues in business. . Cengage Learning. Stuteville, R. . 2009. Global sustainability and service-learning: paradigms for the future. . International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10-22. Voegtlin, C. . 2014. Global governance: CSR and the role of the UN Global Compact. Journal of Business Ethics, 179-191. Yeow, P. D. 2014. Bags for life: The embedding of ethical consumerism. Journal of Business Ethics, 87-99.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Letter of Transmittal TO: Professor Saporito FROM: Denisha Sydney DATE: December 11 th , 2016 SUBJECT: Recommendation Report on Breastfeeding Practices in A reas of Zika virus Transmission Dear Ms. Saporito : This report provides recommendations on Breastfeeding P ractices in Areas of Zika virus Transmission. There is presently a vast scale plague of Zika infection disease in the Americas. For the vast majority, contaminations brought about by Zika infection prompt to a mellow and fleeting sickness, yet Zika has now been affirmed as the reason for fetal microcephaly and other birth imperfections, and it has been connected to certain neurological issue. This article offers some knowledge into Zika infection disease, administration of ladies who are pregnant or arranging a pregnancy, and the ramifications of Zika infection for rehearsing maternity specialists in the UK. This report will analyze h ealth impacts and dangers that may hinder contamination amid pregnancy which can bring about genuine birth surrenders and is connected with other pregnancy issues. Several nations that have encountered Zika flare-ups as of late have reported increments in individuals who have Guillain-Barre disorder (GBS). Zika virus and infant feeding will continue to follow the research development in the area of infant feeding, especially in the context of the Zika virus outbreak. The steering group will meet at or before 6 months from publication of this guideline, to review any new data and determine whether an update might be indicated. This report is also credi ted to the assistance of Ministry of Environmental Public Health along with my extensive research. For further details, you can contact me anytime at your inconvenience. Denisha Sydney Recommendation Report Breastfeed ing Practices in Areas of Zika V irus Transmission. Denisha Sydney Monroe College This is an introduction to recommend breastfeeding practices in areas of Zika virus transmission, and their implementation s . It may also be used to inform communication to the general public. TABLE OF CONTENTS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 PROBLEM 6 BACKGROUND 6 BODY 7 CONCLUSIONS 13 RECOMMENDATIONS 14 REFERENCES 15 ABSTRACT / EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report will assist the Ministry of Public Health Emergency of International Concern with implementing programs to minimize transmission of Zika Virus infants. Zika infection is a mosquito-borne infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; a similar mosquito likewise transmits other vector-borne illnesses - dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. Right now, there is no treatment or immunization to ensure particularly ag ainst Zika infection disease. This rule is a piece of an assortment of work that investigates accessible confirmation for conceivable adequate restorative explanations behind transitory or lo ng haul end of breastfeeding. It redesigns the between time direction on breastfeeding with regards to the Zika infection distribu ted by WHO on 25 February 2016 . A deliberate audit taking after the methodology of the Cochrane handbook for precise surveys of intercessions was dispatched to decide the danger of transmission of Zika infection through bosom drain or other breastfeeding-related organic liquids (i.e. blood, sweat and salivation), and to survey the nearness of Zika infection what's more, Zika-particular antibodies in bosom drain and other breastfeeding-related natural liquids. The inquiry technique included electronic databases and also the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/WHO Zika inquire about ventures list (8) and the WHO-facilitated International Clinica l Trials Registry Platform. The survey distinguished two case-reports depicting three mother-infant sets. The three breastfeeding moms had affirmed Zika infection disease and were symptomatic inside 3 days of conveyance. Two of the three newborn children conceived of these moms had affirmed Zika infection disease. The Zika infection was recognized in the bosom drain of every one of the three moms, and appeared to be replicative in cell culture in tests from one mother. In any case, the present information is not adequate to finish up transmission by means of breastfeeding. The orderly survey too distinguished three reviews that affirmed the nearness of the Zika infection in serum and salivation of grown-up ladies and men. No reviews have researched the nearness of Zika infection in sweat. The general nature of confirmation for suspected, plausible or affirmed Zika infection contamina tion among newborn children or youthful kids breastfeeding from moms with Zika infection contamination, and the nearness (recognized
Friday, March 13, 2020
Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones Essays Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones Essay Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones Essay Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones Name: Lecturer: Institution: : Course: Date: Abstract This paper looks to delve into the chemistry behind ketones and aldehydes as well as related compounds. The endeavor involved looking into the way their bonding influences how they react. It also considers the simple physical properties of these compounds including their reaction with other compounds, chemical structures and formulas. The paper also looked to establish the relationship and differences between natural butter and synthetic butter, natural raspberry and synthetic raspberry, and vanilla extract and pure vanilla. Finally, this paper endeavored to identify and a detailed description of the type of reactions that take place in Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 reactions as well as Grignard reagents. Flavoring Agents made from Aldehydes and Ketones Flavoring agents are considered the largest compounds used as food additives. Beverage and food applications of flavoring agents include spice blends, fruits, nuts, wine flavoring agents, and vegetables. They may modify or magnify the aroma or taste of the intended product. There exists a wide variety of flavoring agents used for numerous purposes (Cooper, 2009). Examples of flavoring agents include alcohols, esters, protein hydrolysates, aldehydes, and ketones. Aldehydes and Ketones are connected from the premise that they both possess a carbonyl group C=O. The main difference however is that the carbonyl carbon of ketones is bound by two carbon atoms. On the other hand, the carboxyl carbon of aldehydes is bound by one hydrogen atom. Hence, aldehydes place the carbonyl group at the terminal carbon end, while the ketone carbonyl group is always internal. Typically, simple aldehydes have an irritating and unpleasant odor. One flavoring agent made from aldehydes is Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde. This compound is largely used in fixation of fragrances (Bloch, 2006). In addition, aldehydes are also used in commercial product fragrances such as deodorants, detergents, fabric softeners, shampoo, and soaps. The other flavoring agent made from aldehydes is C8 Aldehyde (Octanol). This compound is also known as caprylaldehyde or octyl aldehyde. Flavoring agents made from this compound are used in detergents, soaps, as well as creams and light fragrances requiring a citrus character. It is used as a flavoring agent in foods such as baked goods, gelatins, and ice cream. The third flavoring agent used from aldehydes is Cinnamic Aldehyde (Cooper, 2009). This compound is used to make flavoring agents where cinnamon characters are desired. Though it can be extracted from cassia and cinnamon bark oils, Cinnamic Aldehyde is normally produced synthetically. In the United States and Europe, Cinnamic Aldehyde is mostly used in bakery goods, chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash and candy. Primarily, Cinnamic Aldehyde is unsaturated, and this makes it easy to react for creating many compounds that are in turn used in numerous fragrance compositions. One flavoring agent made from ketones is acetone. Acetone accounts for the few compounds that exhibit infinite solubility in water as well as the capability of dissolving numerous organic compounds. This quality allows acetone to be removed when it is no longer needed due to its low boiling point. It is considered the most important industrial solvent and is used in products such as varnishes, resins, paints, nail polish removers, and coatings. The second ketone flavoring agent is Methyl ethyl ketone. This compound exists both in outdoor and indoor air. Methyl ethyl ketone in the air is produced through the photo oxidation of air pollutants such as certain hydrocarbons including butane. Primarily, ethyl ketone is implemented as a solvent in processes that involve cellulose acetate, resins, gums, and cellulose nitrate. Methyl ethyl ketone is also implemented in the rubber industry, paraffin wax production, glues and paint removers (Cooper, 2009). Natural Butter vs Synthetic Butter When compared to synthetic butter, natural butter is slightly higher saturated in fats at eight grams compared to five grams. In comparison, both natural and synthetic butter constitute a mixture of triglycerides with differing forms of fatty acids. This implies that no single chemical structure on natural or synthetic butter can be drawn. The breakdown of the glycerides leads to the release of free fatty acids and butyric in butter with the structural formula of CH3CH2CH2Ã¢â¬âCOOH. The butyric acid in butter is responsible for the characteristic nauseating smell in rancid butter. The characteristic color of natural and synthetic butter comes from its chemical composition of carotene. The fatty acids in natural and synthetic butter range from oleic acid (CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH 31.9), myristic acid (CH3(CH2)12COOH 19.8), palmitic acid (CH3(CH2)16COOH 14.9), stearic acid (CH3(CH2)16COOH 14.9), linolenic acid (CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7CO) among others. The synthesis of but ter primarily involves fermenting the butyrate represented by the following chemical reaction; C6H12O6 > C4H8O2 + 2CO2 + 2H2. In accordance with a Harvard medical study, women are at more risk of succumbing to heart disease when they consumer synthetic butter compared to natural butter. On the other, consuming natural butter, helps increase the absorption of a wide array of nutrients in the food we consume. Natural butter comprises of a wider array of nutritional benefits than synthetic butter because they are manufactured. In terms of taste, natural butter tastes better than synthetic butter because it is capable of stimulating enhancing the taste buds and food flavors. In addition, synthetic butter is capable of lowering HDL cholesterol in the human body whereas natural butter does not. Compared to natural butter, synthetic butter has been established to cause negative effect on the health of those who consume it. These include increasing the risk of succumbing to certain cancers five times compared to natural butter. Furthermore, synthetic butter reduces the quality of breast and decreases the response of insulin and immunity in the human body (Cooper, 2009). In this case, the most significant comparison between natural and synthetic butter is their chemical structure. The chemical composition of natural butter blends well with the fatty acids of our bodies. On the other hand, the chemical structure and composition of synthetic butter bears negative effects on the human body. In summary, one form of butter occurs naturally, and the other is man made. Statistically, they are both considered unhealthy for human consumption. Nevertheless, if one has to make a choice, they should opt to chose natural butter and consume it in small amounts. Rasberry vs Synthetic Rasberry Natural raspberry is normally obtained from synthesizing coumaroyl-CoA. The extraction of pure and natural raspberry ketone usually yields about 2-5 mg per kilo of raspberries. Therefore, consuming raspberry fruits leaves, or seeds does not yield sufficient metabolic boosting properties. The natural availability of raspberry ketone low and this makes it hard to obtain the needed yield in a leaf, fruit, or seed extract. The preferred form of raspberry ketone is hence produced synthetically to obtain raspberry ketone powder. Both natural and synthetic raspberry products offer exceptional antioxidants depending on the amount of raspberry contained. To put this perspective into consideration, in order to obtain 250 milligrams of pure raspberry, one is supposed to consume between sixty and five hundred pounds of raspberries. It therefore makes sense to synthesize the compound (Cooper, 2009). Both natural and synthesized raspberry ketone contains ellagic acid. This is a form of compound performs anti-carcinogenic functions against various carcinogens. When consumed in the right amount, raspberry ketone has been proven capable of preventing high induced fat elevations in the body. Since it would be impossible to consume this much raspberry ketone from natural raspberry, this can only be achieved from consuming synthesized raspberry. Once consumed, the raspberry ketone compound induces the release of norepinephrine in the body. Consequently, norepinephrine induces glucose release from energy supplements as well as increasing the breakdown of triglycerides to separate fatty acids. The general representation of raspberry ketone is represented by the following; Source: Examine .com. Raspberry Ketones Vanilla Extract vs Pure Vanilla Statistically, ninety-seven percent of the vanilla used for its various purposes is synthetic, and the use of pure vanilla is little. Vanilla extract is normally manufactured from eugenol (olive oil) or through breaking down lignin products from conifer such as picea and spruce. Chemically, pure vanilla possesses well over two hundred elemental chemicals that give it its characteristic smell and taste that make it impossible to mimic. The main compound that gives pure vanilla its characteristic taste is referred to as vanillin. Madagascan vanillin possesses three times more vanillin concentration. Pure vanilla requires no sugar be added and does not go bad. In essence, it ages like fine liquor. FDA standards require that pure vanilla contain fourteen ounces of vanilla beans and thirty-five percent alcohols in every gallon during extraction (Gmehling, 2004). Primarily, vanilla extract is synthesized from artificial flavorings that mostly attained from wood byproducts and normally con tain chemicals. Differing palates between pure and vanilla extract led to vanilla extracts leading to a bitter aftertaste as well as a poor quality. In addition, extract vanilla requires twice as much flavoring for it to match the quality of pure vanilla. Summary The main objective of this paper was to investigate the chemistry behind ketones and aldehydes as well as related compounds. One of the major objectives involved conducting an investigation on what influence their reactions undergo upon bonding. This paper put into consideration the simple physical properties of these compounds including their reaction with other compounds, chemical structures and formulas. In addition, this paper looked to establish the relationship and differences between natural butter and synthetic butter. This yielded the conclusion that both natural and synthetic butter constitute a mixture of triglycerides with differing forms of fatty acids. Natural raspberry and synthetic raspberry were also compared. The investigation revealed that the natural availability of raspberry ketone is low and this makes it hard to obtain the needed yield in a leaf, fruit, or seed extract. The preferred form of raspberry ketone is hence produced synthetically to obtain raspberry ketone powder. Vanilla extract and pure vanilla were also compared. The finding maintained that chemically, pure vanilla possesses well over two hundred elemental chemicals that give it its characteristic smell and taste that make it impossible to mimic. The main compound that gives pure vanilla its characteristic taste is referred to as vanillin. Vanilla extract possesses three times more vanillin concentration. Finally, this paper endeavored to identify and a detailed description of the type of reactions that take place in Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 reactions as well as Grignard reagents. Investigation on this established that Sn1, Sn2, E1, E2 reactions are determined by the type of reaction in question- either elimination reactions or substitution reactions. References Arlt, W., Gmehling, J., Onken, U. (2009). Aldehydes and ketones, ethers. Frankfurt am Main: Dechema. Bloch, D. R. (2006). Organic chemistry demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill. Cooper, J. H. (2009). Flavoring agents of aldehydes and ketones. Chicago. Gmehling, J., Onken, U. (2004). Aldehydes and ketones. (Vapor-liquid equilibrium data collection.) Frankfurt am Main: DECHEMA. Sittig, M. (2008). Polyacetal resins, aldehydes, and ketones. Park Ridge, N.J: Noyes Development Corp.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Aristotle view friendship - Essay Example According to Tutuska, Aristotle described friendship of utility as the one that is for the old and that it is easily dissolved. He also described it as acquaintance since it is based on something that is introduced into the relationship by the other person. He described friendship of pleasure as the one that is normally built among the young people as it has great influences from the pleasures and passions that are in their lives. Tutuska explains that these types of friendship are unstable and that they are bound to change with time which leads to dissolving of the friendship. Aristotle explains that the only difference between friendship of utility and that of pleasure is that people in friendship of pleasure seeks for something that is pleasant to them at the moment whereas those seeking friendship of utility are looking for a business deal or long term benefits. It can also be identified that the bonds between individuals in friendship of utility are very weak and this leads to i t being easily dissolved. Tutuska goes ahead to describe the third type of friendship as that friendship of virtue. Aristotle termed this as the highest friendship that one can achieve as it is based on the fact that a person wishes the best their friends regardless of utility or pleasure. Aristotle calls it as a sort that is complete as it exists between people who are good and are alike in virtue. He terms it as a friendship that is long lasting and that it is tough to obtain as these types of people are hard to come by as it takes someone to do a lot of work to have virtuous friendship. Virtuous friendship requires a lot of time and care to be spent and therefore it limits the number of friends that can be found in it. Friendship of virtue is felt among the good people and that it is resistant to slander. The main reasons that Aristotle values friendship so much is that friendship supersedes honour and justice. He argues that there is no any person who would wish to stay without a friend. He also says that those people who are in leadership and are given a great deal of power are in dire need of friendship and that law makers tend to take friendship with a lot of seriousness than justice. He terms friendship as glue that holds cities together and that it is beautiful by itself. Aristotle also argues that friendship can be enjoyed since it is choiceworthy for its own sake and that it is something that is much greater that being honoured (Tutuska 353-355). Aristotle explains that it takes character to maintain virtuous friendships which helps in maintaining a solid community as communities are built around friendship. He also argues that virtuous friendships are very few and that friendships of utility and that of pleasure are the ones that keep the cities together. This makes it clear to us that there is still the need to retain honour and justice within friendships. Ways in which friendship shape our public activity Friendship can be termed as a relationshi p that exists among people who are in good terms with each other as explained above. This means that when handling any activity in public, a person will be keen to take care of the feeling of other people. Therefore, people will avoid any speech or activity that can lead to any form of violence among the co-existing communities. This helps in the development of any nation as the environment that will be created in a peaceful nation will